Many of us are familiar with Java RMI but to get it working over the internet is a bit more involved, at least in my own experience of doing so. Please note that this post assumes a basic understanding of Java RMI. If you would like to start from scratch, see Oracle's official documentation.
- Enable port forwarding for ports 1099 and 1100. Why? 1099 is the defacto-standard port for Java RMI. As for port 1100, we're going to use this for communicating with remote objects. This latter is arbitrary though and can be replaced by a different port if you prefer.
rmiregistryin your codebase on any servers. Note that this is not required for clients to receive a response.
- In your server-side code do
.rebind("//your-local-ip:1099/remoteObjectName");This will bind the object to your local machine. However, because we are using port forwarding, we are telling our router to direct any packets to 1099 to our local IP address. Please note that you cannot use
rebindon an external IP.
- IMPORTANT:Any objects which intend to receive any response, rather than extend UnicastRemoteObject, use the following code:
UnicastRemoteObject.exportObject(yourObject, 1100)This will allow your object to listen for remote calls on port 1100 (which we have port forwarded). If you do not do this, then Java will use an anonymous port (which will probably get blocked remotely).
- In your client-side code do
- Don't forget to compile your remote classes with
- IMPORTANT:Finally, when running your java client/server make sure you pass
-Djava.rmi.server.hostname=your-external-IPto Java. Eg:
java -Djava.rmi.server.hostname=22.214.171.124 clientThis JVM argument when passed will set the address to be bound to exported remote objects. It can be set programmatically but doing so is left as an exercise for the reader.
You may get the following error:
java.rmi.ConnectException: Connection refused to host: 127.0.1.1 (or some remote IP); nested exception is:
java.net.ConnectException: Connection refused
If so, this means you may have missed a step from earlier. Unfortunately, there are many causes for this error!
Finally, rather than use string literals for the IP addresses, you will probably want to use automated methods to keep track of them. This has been left out of the code above for simplicity.